7 disadvantages of transdermal drug delivery 8 17 19 transdermal drug delivery system cannot deliver ionic drugs it cannot achieve high drug levels in blood it cannot develop for drugs of large molecular size it cannot deliver drugs in a pulsatile fashion it cannot develop if drug or formulation causes irritation to skin. Transdermal drug delivery systems offer several benefits because drugs administered are able to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism and factors that alter pharmacokinetics in the gastrointestinal tract this significantly improves systemic bioavailability with reduced risk of side effects associated with concentration. More formally transdermal iontophoresis should be called electrically assisted transdermal delivery there are three major enhancing mechanisms for drug flux through the skin of which iontophoresis also known as electrorepulsion or electromigration or the nernst planck effect is just one. Delving deeper into dermal and transdermal drug delivery factors and mechanisms associated with nanocarrier mediated strategies jyothsna manikkath t k sumathy aparna manikkath srinivas mutalik department of pharmaceutics manipal college of pharmaceutical sciences manipal mediated dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs . Transdermal delivery because this method avoids direct effects on the stomach and intestine 5 drugs that are degraded by the enzymes and acids in the gastrointestinal system may also b e good targets 6 first pass metabolism an additional limitation to oral drug delivery can be avoided with transdermal administration 7
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