The layers that comprise the anode cathode and electrolyte in thin film batteries are true to their name with thicknesses on the order of microns 0001 mm they are often deposited using physical vapor deposition typically by thermal evaporation and sputtering. Lithium sputtering deposition and evaporation controlled thin film engineering by martin j neumann and a great selection of related books art and collectibles available now at abebookscom. Thin film deposition systems lithium li pieces evaporation materials depositing lithium via sputtering or e beam evaporation is possible but the rate can be difficult to control due to the materials low melting point in order to successfully evaporate lithium it is important that the material is not oxidized . Coating methods include physical vapor deposition pvd and one technique is called sputtering the sputtering method of thin film deposition involves introducing a controlled gas usually chemically inert argon into a vacuum chamber and electrically energizing a cathode to establish a self sustaining plasma
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