Digital journal of ophthalmology 2015 volume 21 number 3 september 20 2015 linberg jv ed lacrimal surgery contemporary issues in ophthalmology vol 5new york churchill livingstone 1988348 reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without expressed written permission of the digital journal of ophthalmology is . The results after implantation of lester jones canalicular bypass tubes in 326 eyes 310 patients are reviewed the bypass tubes were implanted after canalicular obstruction from a variety of . From the 1990s onward it has been possible to assess changes in the lacrimal duct by direct minimally invasive diagnostic inspection with the aid of miniaturized endoscopes originally used in gastroduodenal surgery it has been shown in this way that mechanical lacrimal duct stenosis often . Thus surgery on the lacrimal duct can now be performed in such a way that the structural integrity and normal physiological function of the entire efferent lacrimal pathway are preserved 5 8 . The human tear film is a 3 layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss or reduction in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye the lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film most notably the aqueous dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other
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